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Implementing Cisco Security Monitoring, Analysis and Response System certification

unique: important U.S. Election systems had been Left uncovered on-line regardless of respectable Denials | 642-545 Dumps and Real test Questions with VCE Practice Test

For years, U.S. election officers and balloting machine providers have insisted that critical election programs are by no means related to the web and for this reason can’t be hacked.

however a bunch of election protection experts have discovered what they accept as true with to be nearly three dozen backend election systems in 10 states linked to the internet over the closing 12 months, including some in vital swing states. These include systems in 9 Wisconsin counties, in four Michigan counties, and in seven Florida counties—all states which are perennial battlegrounds in presidential elections.

one of the crucial techniques have been on-line for a yr and possibly longer. some of them disappeared from the cyber web after the researchers notified an tips-sharing group for election officials last yr. however at least 19 of the programs, including one in Florida’s Miami-Dade County, had been nonetheless linked to the internet this week, the researchers advised Motherboard.

The researchers and Motherboard had been able to check that at the least one of the crucial techniques in Wisconsin, Rhode Island, and Florida are in fact election systems. The rest are nonetheless unconfirmed, however the proven fact that a few of them appeared to at once drop offline after the researchers reported them suggests their findings are on the mark.

“We ... found that at the least some jurisdictions were no longer conscious that their systems have been on-line,” stated Kevin Skoglund, an impartial security advisor who conducted the analysis with 9 others, all of them long-time safety professionals and lecturers with talents in election security. Skoglund is additionally part of an advisory community, not linked to the research, that is working with the countrywide Institute of standards and know-how to boost new cybersecurity requirements for voting machines. “In some circumstances, [the vendor was] in can charge [of installing the systems] and there changed into no oversight. Election officers were publicly saying that their systems were by no means linked to the internet as a result of they failed to know in a different way."

The techniques the researchers found are made by Election methods & application, the appropriate balloting desktop business within the nation. they are used to acquire encrypted vote totals transmitted via modem from ES&S balloting machines on election night, as a way to get rapid results that media use to name races, despite the fact that the effects aren’t closing.

commonly, votes are kept on memory playing cards inside the balloting machines at polling locations. After an election, ballot worker's eradicate these and drive them to county election workplaces. however some counties want to get their results quicker, in order that they use wireless modems, either embedded within the balloting machines or externally related to them, to transmit the votes electronically. The equipment that receives these votes, known as an SFTP server, is connected to the information superhighway behind a Cisco firewall.

For security explanations, the SFTP server and firewall are simplest speculated to be linked to the internet for a few minutes before an election to test the transmission, and then for lengthy ample after an election to transmit the votes. however the researchers found probably the most techniques linked to the web for months at a time, and yr-round for others, making them liable to hackers.

Hacking the firewall and SFTP server would permit an attacker to potentially intercept the results as they’re transmitted and send fake consequences to the FTP server, counting on how securely the ES&S gadget authenticates the information. although the election effects that are transmitted by the use of modem are unofficial—legitimate votes are taken without delay from the voting computer reminiscence playing cards after they arrive at county offices—a significant discrepancy between the unofficial tallies and the authentic ones would create distrust within the election results and confusion about which of them were correct.

"These are all secure applied sciences that if [configured] appropriately work simply excellent. It’s simply that they have no faith that they are accomplished accurately."

but Motherboard has realized that connected to the firewalls are even more critical backend programs—the election-reporting module that tabulates the unofficial votes as smartly because the reputable ones, and the election-management gadget it truly is utilized in some counties to software vote casting machines earlier than elections. The researchers noted that gaining access through the firewall to these programs could potentially permit a hacker to alter legit election outcomes or subvert the election-management system to distribute malware to voting machines during the USB flash drives that circulate between this system and the voting machines.


on-line, the researchers can only see the firewalls configured in entrance of those techniques and cannot see anything else at the back of them—a federal law makes it illegal for them to probe beyond the firewall. but ES&S files posted online in quite a few counties display that these important backend programs are related to the firewall, and ES&S also validated to Motherboard that this is the appropriate architecture in counties that need to transmit effects electronically.

ES&S has lengthy insisted that election-administration techniques are air-gapped—this is, now not connected to the internet or related to another gadget it's related to the web—and the company insists to Motherboard that the diagram it offered isn’t displaying them linked to the cyber web.

“There’s nothing connected to the firewall this is exposed to the cyber web,” Gary Weber, vp of software building and engineering for ES&S, told Motherboard. “Our [election-management system] is not pingable or addressable from the public internet.” This makes them invisible to dangerous actors or unauthorized users, he spoke of.


ES&S diagram showing the configuration for the Cisco ASA firewall that sits on the cyber web in entrance of an FTP server that receives votes transmitted from voting machines. (The FTP server is labeled here as records Comm RMS, for outcomes management device). The diagram additionally shows the backend election-administration device (EMS), which is utilized in some jurisdictions to program vote casting machines before every election, and the reporting device (EMS client) that collects votes from the FTP server and tabulates the consequences. Eleven states use ES&S’s DS200 optical scan machines with modems to transmit outcomes on election night (the number of counties in a state that try this varies). photograph: ES&S

but Skoglund said this “misrepresents the facts.” anybody who finds the firewall on-line also finds the election-management system connected to it.

“It isn't air-gapped. The EMS is connected to the information superhighway however is at the back of a firewall,” Skoglund stated. “The firewall configuration [that determines what can go in and out of the firewall]… is the simplest factor that segments the EMS from the internet.”

And misconfigured firewalls are probably the most regular techniques hackers penetrate supposedly included methods. The accurate huge hack of delicate Capital One client statistics is a prime instance of a breach enabled via a poorly configured firewall.

“in the event that they did every little thing accurately [with the ES&S systems] as they are saying they do, there is no danger,” Robert Graham, CEO of Errata security, instructed Motherboard. “These are all at ease technologies that if [configured] as it should be work just satisfactory. It’s simply that they don't have any religion that they are carried out accurately. And the fact that [election officials are] asserting they aren’t on the internet and yet they are on the information superhighway suggests us that they now have every rationale to mistrust them.”

Even relevant configurations won’t comfy a firewall if the firewall utility itself has protection vulnerabilities that enable intruders to skip the entire authentication checks, whitelisting guidelines, and different security parameters set within the firewall’s configuration file.

“If this gadget hasn’t been patched and has a critical vulnerability… you may well be capable of subvert any form of security scheme that you just’ve put in area,” Skoglund instructed Motherboard.

“not only should ballot tallying programs now not be linked to the information superhighway, they shouldn’t be anyplace near the information superhighway.”

whereas no person is suggesting that any of these systems had been manipulated or hacked, the findings spotlight how little native and federal election officials bear in mind how these crucial election methods are in fact configured and linked, and the extent to which they are beholden to what the companies inform them.

Senator Ron Wyden (D-Oregon) spoke of the findings are “yet another damning indictment of the profiteering election carriers, who care extra in regards to the base line than preserving their democracy.” It’s also an indictment, he pointed out, “of the inspiration that essential cybersecurity choices should still be left utterly to county election offices, many of whom do not employ a single cybersecurity professional.”

“not only should still polltallying programs not be related to the internet, they shouldn’t be anywhere near the cyber web,” he brought.

senator ron wyden

Ron Wyden (D-OR) speaks at a press convention alongside Speaker of the house Nancy Pelosi (D-CA) on passing the the united states's Elections Act on June 26, 2019 in Washington, DC. The protected Act invoice includes reforms to take care of vote casting techniques and modernize election infrastructure with the intention to lower the probability of hacking. photo: Tasos Katopodis/Getty images

Wyden mentioned two pieces of federal election security legislations which have stalled on Capitol Hill because of Republican leaders—the protected Act and a Wyden bill known as PAVE Act—would comfortably ban transmission of votes by means of modem and restrict connecting any election-reporting or election-management gadget to the information superhighway or to a telecommunications network at any time.

The ES&S firewalls are configured to only allow authenticated methods to join and pass statistics during the firewall to the SFTP server; they additionally block outbound connections to the web from programs at the back of the firewall. Authenticated methods include modem-enabled voting machines at balloting precincts, or a laptop at regional transmission sites. however even these authenticated programs, armed with passwords to communicate with the SFTP server, can only communicate with that server and cannot attain previous this to the critical backend techniques, in response to ES&S. The passwords for the voting machines to speak with the SFTP server are generated by the election-administration system and handed to the voting machines on a USB flash force when the systems are programmed before each and every election, and the passwords are additionally stored on the SFTP server to authenticate the machines.

both backend methods—the reporting equipment that tabulates votes and the election-administration gadget—take a seat on a local area community, which is linked to the Cisco firewall through a swap. The swap doesn’t provide extra safety; it effortlessly acts as a traffic cop to direct incoming records to the appropriate system. To bring together the encrypted votes the balloting machines have deposited on the SFTP server, the backend reporting gadget reaches through the firewall to query the server each few minutes. If new data have arrived, the reporting equipment grabs these, decrypts them to examine the votes interior, then tabulates them.

as a minimum here is how the configuration within the diagram ES&S provided Motherboard works. but a different diagram the business submitted remaining 12 months to Travis County, Texas, as a part of a contract suggestion, and which is purchasable on-line, shows the reporting system and election-administration gadget at once connected to the SFTP server throughout the switch, and all of them are related to the firewall. this might mean the backend reporting gadget may bypass the firewall to reach the SFTP server without delay, a less secure configuration. Weber of ES&S informed Motherboard the Travis diagram is inaccurate.


ES&S diagram the company submitted remaining 12 months to Travis County, Texas, as a part of a contract idea shows the reporting device and election-management system without delay related to the SFTP server through the switch, and all of them are connected to the firewall.

The backend programs within the ES&S configuration are only protected if the firewall guidelines ES&S has set up for controlling traffic are configured as it should be, if the firewalls don't have any unpatched application vulnerabilities that might let an outsider skip these protections to install malware on the SFTP server and the essential backend systems, and if the firewalls are also invariably maintained and monitored for rogue connections.

sadly, there are a couple of causes to be concerned concerning the security of the firewalls and SFTP servers.

ES&S installs and configures the firewalls for the “majority” of its purchasers, the enterprise told Motherboard. Counties then take over the preservation or contract it out to a 3rd birthday party, which can also even be ES&S in some situations.

closing yr, the Cisco firewalls in Wisconsin didn't acquire a patch for a critical vulnerability until six months after the vulnerability had been made public and the patch turned into launched, Motherboard has learned. Patch delays aren’t atypical in states that require their election systems to be state certified as well as federally licensed—a patch that must be applied to a licensed device commonly must be reviewed for compliance with the certification necessities before it can be utilized. but six months is a long time, and this skill the techniques have been liable to assault all through a prolonged length before the 2018 midterm elections.

yet another renovation problem contains sluggish utility upgrades. The researchers on Skoglund’s crew discovered that seven of the SFTP servers on the ES&S systems they found are using old-fashioned Cerberus FTP Server 6.0 utility that the software maker stopped helping in January 2017. This capacity that for the ultimate two and a half years, the maker of that software has not updated it, and going forward will no longer produce patches if any vulnerabilities within the software are discovered. The present version is 10.0, and although that it has been available considering that November 2018, not one of the ES&S SFTP servers the researchers discovered on-line are working it.

no longer every ES&S backend election device is linked to the web, because now not each county opts to transmit election consequences. There are more than 33,000 ES&S DS200 optical scan machines with modems in use throughout eleven states and the District of Columbia. but ES&S informed Motherboard it doesn’t understand how many of its shoppers currently transmit outcomes.

What’s not commonly well-known by using the general public about ES&S election programs is that the company’s complete configuration for transmitting election consequences—from the modem to the SFTP server—isn't licensed by the Election suggestions commission (EAC), which oversees the trying out and certification of voting machine at the federal level. ES&S balloting machines are demonstrated and licensed, but the transmission configuration isn’t. The labs test them for performance to be sure they transmit votes, and that’s it. In advertising literature, ES&S highlights the certified parts of its election gadget in blue and labels them "EAC certified Configuration." The uncertified half is highlighted in white and labeled "extended Configuration."

Weber advised Motherboard that as a substitute of federal certification, his enterprise has focused on working with officials in states that enable modem transmission to check and certify the configuration beneath their own state certification programs. He referred to this comprises a security evaluation of the configuration. requested which states do these safety assessments, he noted Wisconsin, Florida, and Minnesota. however somebody standard with Wisconsin’s certification checking out, who spoke on situation of anonymity, informed Motherboard it doesn’t include a security assessment of the modem transmissions and configuration.

hunting Election methods

The researchers begun trying to find linked systems in July of 2018 after seeing repeated comments from state and native election officers in addition to federal officials with the Election tips fee, that vote casting machines and backend election techniques are under no circumstances connected to the web.

despite the fact these officials well known that many balloting machines use modems to transmit election outcomes over mobile networks and landline connections, they have lengthy insisted that modem transmissions don’t involve the web. a brand new York instances story I wrote ultimate year, despite the fact, confirmed that the modem transmissions do pass throughout the internet, and even an ES&S doc that the business supplied to Rhode Island in 2015 calls the modem transmission of votes an “cyber web” transmission. A document for modem transmissions from voting machines made via Dominion vote casting programs—a further desirable balloting desktop enterprise in the nation—similarly discusses TCP-IP and SSL, both protocols used for information superhighway traffic.


An ES&S doc offered to Rhode Island and dated 2015, which certainly shows the modem transmission of votes from the company's DS200 optical scan voting machines going over the web.

“The configurations demonstrate TCP-IP configuration and ‘SSL non-compulsory,’ making it clear that at least the providers be aware of their methods are connecting in the course of the information superhighway, despite the fact that their election legit clients do not are aware of it or proceed to insist to the public that the systems are not linked to the information superhighway,” Skoglund observed.

figuring out the vote transmissions are going over the cyber web, the researchers decided to look in the event that they may find the backend information superhighway-linked programs that obtain the transmitted votes. They found a method of looking for connected ES&S programs after one among their community stumbled throughout the IP handle for an ES&S firewall in Rhode Island in a publicly attainable document.

After combing via different documents for ES&S methods published online, and finding technical standards that demonstrate the systems use Cisco ASA 5500 series firewalls, and Cerberus FTP application and Cisco AnyConnect VPN for the vote transmissions, they used a specialized search engine called Censys to locate connected methods that matched this configuration mixture. Censys scans the cyber web weekly for linked instruments and catalogues counsel about them, including their IP address, in a database. Their search led them to 35 connected systems over the ultimate 12 months, notwithstanding Skoglund notes that there may truly be more ES&S programs linked to the cyber web that don't seem to be seen to Censys scans, due to the fact that administrators can configure their connected contraptions to block computerized scans. This doesn’t suggest, however, that a person can’t still find the systems on-line.

When analyzing the ownership statistics for the IP addresses of the connected techniques, at the least four of them were registered to county governments in Michigan and Florida. This helped bolster the researchers’ perception that what they'd discovered were county election techniques. The different IP addresses were more durable to trace, despite the fact, considering that they were registered to enormous cyber web provider suppliers, and not the ISP customers the use of them.

The researchers found one or two systems on-line in Illinois, Indiana, Minnesota, Nebraska, Rhode Island, Tennessee, and Iowa. The Nebraska gadget, they surmise, is doubtless a demo or look at various device for ES&S, which has its headquarters in Omaha. They also found two methods in Canada, where ES&S has box offices and shoppers, that may additionally even be demo or look at various methods.

however only one gadget became discovered online in Rhode Island, this one become particularly complicated, the researchers be aware. Rhode Island, in contrast to other states, conducts its elections from a centralized workplace on the state Board of Elections, as a substitute of farming out election administration to each and every county or jurisdiction. The election reporting gadget the researchers found online, for this reason, turned into the reporting device for the complete state.

one of the most dense states for on-line election programs was Florida, where the researchers discovered a few related programs that they consider belong to Bradford, Charlotte, Flagler, Wakulla, Miami-Dade, and Pasco counties, and one different county they’re unable to identification from the IP tackle.

Florida is wide-spread for its knuckle-biting elections. Trump won the state by using simply 1.2 percent features in 2016, and in 2018 the state had senate and gubernatorial races that have been too close to call on election nighttime. Miami-Dade county in certain, with 1.four million registered voters, is among the most intensely watched counties in federal elections—it turned into the usage of ES&S machines with embedded modems within the 2016 elections.

None of this suggests that the election methods in Miami-Dade or any other Florida county were manipulated in the 2016 elections. however the findings spotlight what's at stake with critical election methods online.

Any election system linked to the web creates knowledge vulnerabilities for elections. however the 9 systems in Wisconsin and 4 in Michigan that the researchers found carry selected crimson flags considering that these had been two states amongst three the place eco-friendly celebration presidential nominee Jill Stein sought a recount of the 2016 presidential votes. All three states, which blanketed Pennsylvania, produced effects that were contrary to election polls and prior state voting traits. despite the fact there become no particular evidence suggesting the election methods had been manipulated, a recount could have helped provide assurance to the public that this wasn’t the case. A court, although, halted the Michigan recount after it began, and a Pennsylvania court docket declined to listen to Stein’s case for a recount in that state.

"What you're describing is a nasty behavior amplified with the aid of sloppiness and complete negligence of protection."

Wisconsin’s recount became accomplished, however some counties that used optical scan machines didn’t do a true recount—they readily ran the paper ballots in the course of the optical-scan machines a 2d time, in its place of manually evaluating them against the digital tallies to uncover discrepancies. If any issues existed in the scanner software to produce mistaken results throughout the first scan, they would reproduce the same mistaken outcomes within the re-scan.

The researchers repeated their searches of the Censys database periodically to peer when techniques dropped out of visibility or new ones popped up online. This allowed them to see the methods linked for long intervals of time, contrary to assertions with the aid of election officers that the systems for transmitting outcomes most effective continue to be connected for a couple of minutes after elections. one of the most systems do pop up on-line most effective round election times, however they are inclined to remain online about a month earlier than disappearing, not a few minutes.

“Rhode Island is one which type of comes on and goes off,” Skoglund observed. “They don’t live on year round. however others do.”

Motherboard asked Errata security CEO Graham, who created an online-scanning tool known as Masscan, to independently determine the methodology the researchers used to find the techniques, and he Checked that the formulation was sound, the usage of the quest parameters the researchers offered. just like the researchers, even though, he became unable to explore further without breaking the legislation, so he might handiest see the firewalls and not what is behind them. An impartial election protection skilled named Harri Hursti, who consults with election districts and helps run the annual voting desktop Hacking Village on the Def Con safety conference, additionally validated the methodology for Motherboard without being advised the way to locate the methods. Hursti in fact informed Motherboard that many other election programs are on-line that the researchers’ certain search parameters ignored.

The researchers didn’t single out ES&S election techniques for their hunt. They also tried to look for related systems for the different right two vote casting machine carriers within the nation—Dominion vote casting systems and Hart InterCivic. but Skoglund stated the configuration footprints for these methods are less diverse than ES&S’s footprint, resulting in the team finding thousands of programs that were clearly not election infrastructure.

however the researchers haven't been in a position to confirm with elections officers in each state that all of the firewalls they noticed are linked to ES&S methods, they had been able to verify ample of them that Skoglund says he feels confident their record is legitimate. And all of the programs the researchers discovered share a configuration footprint that, as far as they could inform, is entertaining to ES&S methods. furthermore, the IP addresses for the firewalls of the non-tested methods all seem like in counties that also use ES&S vote casting machines, in keeping with a crosscheck against a web device operated by using tested vote casting, a nonprofit that tracks voting desktop use around the country. youngsters resolving IP addresses to specific geographical place is tricky to do, the researchers have been in a position to pinpoint the addresses they discovered to a particular city or place in all situations apart from four of the techniques.

ES&S did not dispute that the firewalls the researchers found are ES&S systems; the company talked about it had no method of realizing in some way. Motherboard offered to deliver the company with the IP addresses the researchers discovered for the firewalls, but the business said in an email that it doesn’t shop client IP addresses and therefore wouldn’t be able to inform if the programs belong to its customers.

since the researchers simplest begun hunting for the techniques final year, it’s not popular how lengthy they’ve been on-line, but it’s possible that some have been linked to the web for years, going back to whenever a county first begun to use modems to transmit election outcomes.

ES&S has been promoting systems with modems to transmit consequences for greater than a decade. Wisconsin authorised the use of its existing ES&S DS200 optical scan vote casting machines, with modem transmission capability, in September 2015, however its old generation of ES&S optical scan machines also used modems for transmitting effects. It’s not clear if they used the identical firewall and backend configuration.

ES&S voting machines

picture: Scott McIntyre/Bloomberg via Getty pictures

besides the fact that children election security certified oppose electronically transmitting votes in any respect, if a county is going to do it, the gadget deploy to acquire the consequences should still no longer be linked to the web when the system is not being used. It serves no different goal than to acquire results.

“whereas the [reporting systems] are comfortable, ES&S recommends that they simplest be connected to the internet when they're being confirmed or in use with a purpose to reduce possible threats,” a statement sent to Motherboard from ES&S and the Wisconsin Election commission says.

however Hursti instructed Motherboard it makes little difference how long election programs are linked; any connectivity at all opens them to talents attacks.

“For a skillful, stimulated attacker, it doesn’t matter an awful lot if [the system is connected] two minutes or a whole 12 months. however for a less professional idiot, much less inspired attacker, the incontrovertible fact that they are there for a yr, it lowers the bar,” he informed Motherboard. “It basically buries the bar under the floor to carry out attacks with much less ability. [And] you have a method longer time when the hack may also be conducted and the evidence of the attacks [hidden]. What you are describing is a nasty habits amplified through sloppiness and complete negligence of safety.”

A greater skilled and inspired hacker—similar to a Russia-backed nation-state hacker—might probably compromise the firewall or SFTP server and plant malware that gets dropped at each and every voting computer that communicates with the server, Skoglund and Hursti stated. here is akin to what safety professionals check with as a “watering hole” assault, named after predatory animals who lie in wait at watering holes for prey to reach to drink.

And if hackers might push malware to the balloting machines from the SFTP server, the malware might probably reconfigure the modem on these machines to make them dial out to a gadget the attackers own, whereas fighting any evidence of those calls from showing up on the gadget’s log. this might supply attackers time to subvert the machines for subsequent elections.

Findings stated and validated

The researchers mentioned the firewall IP addresses in August 2018 to the countrywide Elections Infrastructure information Sharing and evaluation middle (EI-ISAC)—a 24-hour watch center funded by the department of place of origin protection and operated by way of the middle for web security, a nonprofit dependent to enhance and promote foremost practices in cybersecurity. The EI-ISAC gives election officers with safety risk tips and warnings, and informed the researchers they might move the suggestions to the place it crucial to head, however the researchers in no way obtained any follow-up from the EI-ISAC.

A spokesperson for the group would now not inform Motherboard if the tips become disseminated to the affected counties, but the researchers did see some county methods disappear from the internet. The department of place of birth safety, which has been working with states and counties considering the fact that 2016 to comfy their election infrastructures, additionally declined to communicate with Motherboard concerning the researchers’ findings.

The incontrovertible fact that half of the systems have been nonetheless on-line remaining week, youngsters, highlights how new efforts by the federal govt and guidance-sharing businesses to warn election officers about ordinary threats and vulnerabilities don’t work if the message doesn’t get to the individuals who can basically take the programs offline or if native election officials comfortably don’t act on the advice they get hold of. ultimate yr the researchers gave 4 IP addresses to the EI-ISAC that the researchers demonstrated were linked to election infrastructure in Michigan and Florida.

“both in Florida have been taken offline in the following week or two,” Skoglund noted. but the programs in two Michigan counties, Kalamazoo and Roscommon, were still online this week. a third Michigan equipment is additionally on-line, though the researchers are unable to pinpoint the county through which the IP handle is observed.

in a similar fashion, they reported half a dozen IP addresses to Tony Bridges, election security lead at the Wisconsin Election commission, for connected systems in Outagamie, stay away from, Milwaukee, St. Croix, Columbia, and Waukesha counties. but regardless of preliminary pleasant communique, Skoglund said they not ever got a response.

Bridges advised Motherboard he did act on the assistance he obtained, advising the entire counties to disconnect their systems when not in use for elections. He became surprised to be trained remaining week from Motherboard that there were nevertheless programs on-line. He contacted the counties once more, and Skoglund’s group could see that every one off them dropped off apart from Milwaukee County’s device and a different county they had now not reported to Bridges remaining yr, Eau Claire County.

The director of elections in Milwaukee County told Skoglund this week that their equipment changed into on-line for a different election next week. Skoglund instructed Motherboard that after he advised her the equipment had definitely been online considering that September 2018, she pointed out she simplest realized ultimate week that the techniques may still now not be related to the information superhighway between elections.

Skoglund has additionally witnessed one other problems as programs dropped offline after his neighborhood’s disclosure to a county; some IT people are effortlessly turning off the SFTP server or switching it to standby mode so traffic can’t come into it. however so long as the firewall is online, the backend systems are nonetheless related to the information superhighway and can be discovered. And if the AnyConnect VPN remains enabled, this also provides a possible pathway into these backend techniques.

Skoglund said he’s panic that no person is monitoring all of these techniques once they’re on-line, and that counties are trusting the configuration guidelines ES&S offers them, or trusting ES&S to configure the methods securely for them, and are then ignoring the programs as soon as they’re install.

“When a company units up a firewall and a VPN … there's a person who's making use of patches and monitoring logs … and actually actively ensuring the safety of the equipment to be certain it doesn’t develop into a vulnerability,” Skoglund referred to. “That’s a real question with election infrastructure. Who manages this hardware after it’s deployed? And what oversight is there?”

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